1.Two proofs that the earth rotates / Coriolis Effect and Foucault's Pendulum

2.The earth rotates / west to east, 15 degrees per hour, in 24 hours or one day

3.The earth revolves / counterclockwise, 1 degree per day, in 365 1/4 days or one year

4.Revolution causes / different constellation to be visible at different times of the year

5.The altitude of Polaris equals / the latitude of the observer (Use ESRT for Cities in NYS)

6.Stars around Polaris make / counterclockwise circles, Polaris stays still (North star) (Pole Star)

7.Celestial objects (sun, moon, planets) rise in the / east and set in the west due to earth's rotation

8.The moon has phases because / it revolves around the Earth, in one month or 29-30 days (½ the moon is always lit)

9.The moon's rate of rotation equals / its rate of revolution (always see same side)

10.A new moon occurs when / the moon is between the earth and the sun SME (all dark from Earth)

11.A full moon occurs when / the earth is between the sun and the moon SEM (all bright from Earth)

12.Tides are caused by the / moons gravitational pull on the earth (also the sun's but not as much)

13.When the Earth, Moon, and Sun are in a line a / spring tide occurs (most extreme tides)

14.When the Moon and Sun are working against each other we get / smaller tides (neap tides)

15.A solar eclipse happens when / the moon is between the earth and the sun and it blocks out the sun (S.M.E.)

16.A lunar eclipse happens when / the Earth is between the sun and the moon and the shadow hits the moon (S.E.M.)

17.Eclipses don't happen every month because / the moon's orbit is tilted

18.Inner four planets are / rocky (Terrestrial)

19.Outer four planets are / gas giants (Jovian)

20.Heliocentric model / Sun centered, planet revolve in elliptical orbits, sun at one focus

21.Geocentric model / Earth centered, wrong model, planets and sun revolve around earth

22.The earth's orbit is / extremely round, almost perfect, but it is slightly elliptical

23.Eccentricity is a measure of / how oval or elliptical the orbit is (highest =1, line) (lowest=0, perfect circle)

24. The closer and larger two objects are / the greater the force of gravity

25.As a planet gets closer to the sun or a star / the faster it orbits

26.When an object is close it looks / bigger (has a large apparent diameter) (farther = smaller)

27.The Sun is a regular star, burns by converting / Hydrogen into Helium (Nuclear Fusion)

28.Age of universe is approximately / 10-15 billion years old, solar system is only / 4.6 billion

29.Proof the universe is still expanding (big bang) / is the red shift, Doppler effect (longer wavelength)

30.Your universal address from smallest to largest / Earth, solar system, Milky Way, and the Universe


Unit Vocab

  1. Astronomy- the study of the universe

  2. Meteorite- the part of a large meteoroid that survives its trip through the atmosphere and strikes Earth’s surface

  3. Comet- a mass of rock, ice, dust, and gas traveling around the sun, usually in a highly eccentric orbit.

  4. Crater- a bowl-shaped depression on the surface of a moon or a planet, usually caused by the impact of a meteorite.

  5. Maria- extensive dark areas on the moon that represent great basins and level plains.

  6. Regolith- a grayish-brown mixture of small rock pieces and fine particles that covers the moon.

  7. Phases- the daily changes in the moon’s appearance as it is viewed from earth.

  8. Waxing- the increasing of the visible amount of the moon’s illuminated surface, from new moon to full moon.

  9. Waning- the decreasing of the visible amount of the moon’s illuminated surface, from full moon to new moon.

  10. Gibbous – a phase of the moon in which almost all of the bright half of the moon faces Earth.

  11. Umbra- the darkest part of the shadow cast by the moon or by Earth.

  12. Penumbra-The area of partial shadow surrounding the darkest part of the shadow of the Earth or moon.

  13. Lunar eclipse- the eclipse that occurs when the moon passes into Earth’s total shadow, or umbra, preventing sunlight from reaching the moon; it occurs only at the full-moon phase.

  14. Solar eclipse-the eclipse that occurs when the moon passes between the sun and Earth and the moon’s shadow strikes Earth’s surface.

  15. Inner planets- the four planets nearest the sun.

  16. Outer planets- the five planets farthest from the sun.

  17. Meteor shower-a large number of meteors entering and burning up in the atmosphere; meteor showers take place when Earth passes through a debris field.

  18. Continuous spectrum- a spectrum that contains all colors or wavelengths.

  19. Emission spectrum- a spectrum consisting of individual lines at characteristic wavelengths produced when light passes through an incandescent gas; a bright-line spectrum.

  20. Absorption spectrum- a continuous spectrum crossed by dark lines produced when light passes through a non-incandescent gas