Weathering, Erosions, Deposition, Landscapes
Review Sheet – Soto

Weathering: The physical and chemical breakdown of rock into smaller particles called sediment

Weathering, Erosion, Deposition and Landscapes Vocabulary List 1

Weathering, Erosion, Deposition and Landscapes Vocabulary List 2

1. Temperature change – leads to exfoliation (peeling of top layer)
2. Frost Action- freezing and expanding of water, splitting rocks
3. Organic Activity- trees grow through cracks of rocks and split them
4. Abrasion- occurs when rocks collide into other rocks as they travel by wind or water

B. Chemical Weathering- occurs when certain chemicals in the environment interact with minerals that makeup a rock, breaking down or dissolving the rock
1. carbonation- when carbon dioxide from the atmosphere dissolves water droplets in a cloud à forms carbonic acid
Ex: forms underground cave (stalactites vs. stalagmites)
2. hydration- occurs when water dissolves certain minerals in a rock
Ex: typically in moist/wet climates (Cleopatra’s needle)
3. oxidation- occurs when oxygen in the atmosphere combines with certain minerals in a rock à forms rust.
4. Plant acids- produced bother by plants and animals and can dissolve certain minerals in rocks.
5. Man-made acids- form when man-made gases (sulfur & nitrogen dioxides) dissolve in the droplets of water that make up clouds. This causes à sulfuric acid rain and nitric acid rain. (damage our ecosystem)

C. Rate of Weathering- based on temperature and precipitation
1. Temperature
Ex: warm/moist climates à chemical action is dominant
Ex: cold climates à frost action
2. Precipitation
Ex: ↑ in precipitation à ↑ in frost action
Ex: ↑ in precipitation à ↑ in chemical weathering
3. Type of rock – soft weak minerals are less weather-resistant and wear away faster, leaving behind the harder, more weather-resistant rocks.
4. Particle size- an increase in surface area à increase in rate of weathering

II. Soil- a combination of weathered rock and organic material

1. “A-horizon”- top soil, rich in humus, fine particles, light colored
2. “B-horizon”- small amounts of humus, s-m size particles, small amount of weathering, and dark in color
3. “C-horizon”- broken bedrock, trace amounts of humus, almost no weathering
4. Bedrock- bottom layer, no organic material, solid bedrock

III. Erosion- the transporting or movement of sediment from one place to another


IV. Deposition- The point where sediment is no longer being transported by an agent of erosion, and it is dropped off and left at a new location.
A. Factors that affect deposition

  1. Particle size -  the larger the particle, the↑ settling rate (settle faster) - the smaller the particle, the ↓ settling rate (settle slower)
  2. Particle shape - the more round the particle, the ↑ settling rate , ↓ settling time - the flatter the particle, the ↓ the settling rate, ↑settling time
  3. Particle density- the more dense the particle, the ↑ settling rate , ↓ settling time - the less dense the particle, the ↓ the settling rate, ↑settling time


B. Agents of deposition- the forces that deposit sediments in a new location

  1. Gravity- acting alone as the agent of erosion
    * deposited sediments are unsorted
  2. Wind- finer than particles deposited by other agents (windward vs. leeward, sand dunes)
    *deposited sediments are sorted.
  3. water- in water sediments may be deposited and sorted horizontally or vertically.
    Ex: horizontal à largest/densest particles near shore, finest offshore
    Ex: vertical à largest/densest particles near bottom, finest near top
    * deposited sediments are sorted.

V. Landscapes/Drainage Systems- landforms that are related by common origin.
A. Earth’s topography is affected by tectonic forces, climate, human activity, time
1. humid- landscapes are rounded, and have plenty of soil to protect rock beneath
2. arid- sharp angular rock, bare steep slopes
B. Different Regions
1. Mountains – greatest relief, deformed rock, young rivers, v-shaped valleys
Ex:  Appalachian Mountains, Tectonic Mountains (ESRT 2)
2. Plateau- moderate relief, flat tops, flat layers of sedimentary rock
Ex: Tug Hill Plateau, Allegheny Plateau
3. Plains- lowest relief, flat, horizontal rock layers, undisturbed sedimentary rock
Ex: The Hudson-Mohawk Lowlands, The Atlantic Coastal Plain

V1. Ground Water